* Josephine learns about strength through her mother although her mother is imprisoned she never gives up she continues on her journey holding steady in her faith as she cherishes the connection she has with the Madonna. Manman never once shows internal weakness, she physically grows weak as time progresses but her spirit never weakens. “They have not treated me badly” (pg 449)

* Manman teaches her daughter about having faith even in times of adversity. Josephine sees the faith her mother has in the Madonna and what it represents, she is imprisoned and abused and not once in the story has she complained about how unfortunate her situation, instead she looks to the Madonna for her strength.

* A sense of tradition is passed on through the mother daughter relationship as Manman prior to their migration to the city and her arrest used to take Josephine on a pilgrimage every year to the Massacre River and when Jacqueline came to her she knew the questions and the expected answers which suggested that the tradition was already a part of her. Moreover, Manman tells Josephine to keep the Madonna as it was handed down for generations (“great-great-great-grandmother” pg 447)

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